بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيم
Who Are Ahlul-Bayt? Part 7 (Note: I apologize in advance, if my Sunni brothers/sisters feel offended by the content of these parts of the article due to their previous background on Aisha. The purpose of this article is not to make you feel bad, but to provide you with some pieces of information that the Sunni collections carry, but they have been ignored due to some scholars who prevented discussing them. The final judgment is with you.)
Another important approach to realize who Ahlul-Bayt are, is studying the historical events after the demise of the Prophet. According to the purification sentence in Qur’an (the last sentence of Verse 33:33), Ahlul-Bayt are free from any dirt and impurity.
On the other hand, the documented Sunni history testifies that Aisha (one of the wives of the Prophet) was not righteous. If we examine her life after the demise of the Prophet, we will find her misconducts more horrible than what she did during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah (S).
Undoubtedly, on of her most terrible misconduct was instigating the Battle of Camel during the Caliphate of Imam ‘Ali (as). The battle was named Camel (Jamal) since Aisha was riding a Camel to lead the rebels. How can she be pure when she fought against the legitimate Caliph of his time and when she is responsible for shedding the blood of more than 10,000 Muslims? What impurity can be imagined greater than this horrible Fitna which caused to disunite the Muslim Ummah once and forever. Let us first briefly discuss the event preceding to this strife.
Aisha claimed that the reason for her rise against Imam ‘Ali (as) (which was manifested in the battle of Camel) was getting revenge of the blood of Uthman. Yet, the history testifies that Aisha herself was one of the main figures of agitation against Uthman which ended up with his murder. Once she went to Uthman and asked for her share of inheritance from the Prophet (after so many years passed from the demise of the Prophet).
Uthman refrained to give Aisha any money, and reminded her that she was one of those who counseled Abu Bakr not to pay the share of inheritance of Fatimah al-Zahra (sa). So if Fatimah does not have any share, then why should she? Hearing this, Aisha became very angry at Uthman, and came out and said to the people:
"Kill this old fool (Na’thal), for he is unbeliever."
• History of Ibn al-Athir, v3, p206
• Lisan al-Arab, v14, p141
• al-Iqd al-Farid, v4, p290
• Sharh Ibn Abil Hadid, v16, pp 220-223.
The following paragraph from the History of al-Tabari shows the struggle of Aisha to agitate against Uthman and to push the famous companions against him. It also shows her position toward Imam ‘Ali (as), and her plots with Talha for overthrowing Uthman when Talha was able to take over the treasury of state during the siege against Uthman:
While Ibn Abbas was setting out for Mecca, he found Aisha in al-Sulsul (seven miles south of Medina). Aisha said: "O’ Ibn Abbas, I appeal to you by God, to abandon this man (Uthman) and sow doubt about him among the people, for you have been given a sharp tongue. (By the current siege over Uthman) people have shown their understanding, and light is raised to guide them. I have seen Talha has taken the possession of the keys to the public treasuries and storehouses. If he becomes Caliph (after Uthman), he will follow in the path of his parental cousin Abu-Bakr.”Ibn Abbas said: "O’ Mother (of believers), if something happens to that man (i.e., Uthman), people would seek asylum only with our companion (namely, ‘Ali).”Aisha replied: "Be quiet! I have no desire to defy or quarrel with you."
Reference: History of al-Tabari, English version, v15, pp 238-239
Another Sunni historian, al-Baladhuri, in his history (al-Ansab al-Ashraf) said that when the situation became extremely grave, Uthman ordered Marwan Ibn al-Hakam and Abdurrahman Ibn Attab Ibn Usayd to try to persuade Aisha to stop campaigning against him and to help him pass this difficult time. They went to her while she was preparing to leave for pilgrimage, and they told her:
"We pray that you stay in Medina, and that Allah may save this man (Uthman) through you.”Aisha said: "I have prepared my means of transportation and vowed to perform the pilgrimage. By God, I shall not honor your request... I wish he (Uthman) could fit to one of my sacks so that I could carry him. I would then through him into the sea."
Reference: "al-Ansab al-Ashraf", by al-Baladhuri, v4, part 1, p75
Some traditions in Sahih al-Bukhari imply to the reader that the dislike of Aisha toward Imam ‘Ali was because ‘Ali suggested the Prophet to divorce her. The fact is that the Prophet was about to divorce her because he himself found her troublesome since Aisha and Hafsa backed each other against the Prophet to the extent that Allah sent down a revelation in this regard.
(Please see Part IV for the verses related to divorce of Aisha and Hafsa and the corresponding traditions from Sahih al-Bukhari). She often used to offend the Prophet (S) and caused him distress, but the Prophet (S) was compassionate and kind, his character lofty, his patience deep, therefore he frequently said to her, "Your Satan has confused you, O Aisha."
Even if we suppose the story is true (that Imam ‘Ali advised the Prophet to divorce her), is it a sufficient excuse for her to disobey the words of God and her husband? Allah, in the beginning of the verse 33:33 of Qur’an, orders the wives of the Prophet saying:
And stay in your houses. Bedizen not yourselves with the bedizenment of the Time of ignorance. ... (Qur’an 33:33)
Aisha was required by the above verse of Qur’an to stay at home, but she disobeyed the order of God. Is this a sign of piety, purity and righteousness? All of other wives of the Prophet obeyed the above injunction with the exception of Aisha. Historians relate that Hafsa Bint Umar wanted to go with her for the battle of the Camel.
But her brother, Abdullah, reproached her and recited the aforementioned verse to her. Hafsa then canceled her plans. Aisha, however, rode the camel that that Prophet had forbidden her from riding and warned her about the barking of al-Haw’ab’s dogs:
The Prophet (S) said to his wives: "I wonder which one of you will be the instigator of the Camel Affair, at whom the dogs of Haw’ab will bark, and she will be the one who has deviated from the straight path. As to you Humayra (i.e., Aisha), I have warned you in that regard."
• History of Ibn al-Athir, v3, p120
• al-Imamah wa al-Siyasah, by Ibn Qutaybah
This prophecy of the Messenger of Allah (S) took place 28 years later in the plain of al-Haw’ab. The story that all historians tend to agree is that during her journey to Basra (to lead the war of Camel), Aisha passed by the waters of al-Haw’ab and heard the dogs barking. She remembered the warning of the Prophet, and she cried and said: "Take me back! Take me back!”
But Talha and Zubair brought fifty men and bribed them to testify in front of her that the place was not the plain of al-Haw’ab. Many Sunni historians believe that those fifty men gave the first falsified testimony in the history of Islam. (al-Tabari, Ibn al-Athir, and al-Mada’ini who wrote on the events of the year 36 AH. See also "The Great Sedition”-- "al-Fitna al-Kubra", by Taha Husayn).
I believe that this narration was fabricated during the time of the Umayad to reduce the severity of disobedience of Aisha, thinking that she would be exonerated after her nephew, Abdullah Ibn al-Zubair, deceived her, coming with fifty men who swore by God and gave false testimony that the water was not that of al-Haw’ab.
Did the fabricator of the report who forged this narration find an excuse for her disobedience to the order of the Prophet of Allah (S) to stay within her house and the prohibition of riding a camel before arriving at the well of al-Haw’ab, the watering place of the barking dogs? Did they find an excuse for her after she rejected the advice of the Mother of Believers, Umm Salama? Historians have recorded that:
Umm Salama said to Aisha: "Do you remember the day the Prophet of Allah (S) proceeded and we were with him and he turned left from (a place called) Qadid and sat alone with ‘Ali and whispered to him for a long time? You wanted to force yourself on them; I tried to prevent you, but you disobeyed me and intruded. It did not take long before you returned in tears. I asked: ‘What happened to you?’ And you replied: ‘I approached them and they were in conversation, so I said to ‘Ali: ‘I get with the Prophet of Allah one day out of nine, so can you not, O son of Abu Talib, leave me with him on my day?’ The Messenger of Allah came towards me and he was red with anger, and said: ‘Go back! By Allah, none except those who have abandoned faith can hate him’. Then you returned repentant and sad.”Aisha said: "Yes, I remember that."
Umm Salama continued: "I also remind you that you and I were with the Prophet of Allah and he said to us: ‘Which one of you will be the rider of the trained camel, at whom the dogs of Haw’ab will bark, and she will have deviated from the right path?’ We said: ‘We seek refuge from Allah and His Prophet from that’. He touched your back and said: ‘Don’t be that one, O Humayra.’“Aisha said: "I remember that."
Umm Salama said: "Do you not remember that day when your father came with Umar, so we put on our veils. They came in and spoke about what they wanted to, until they said: ‘O Prophet of Allah (S) we do not know how long you will be with us. If only you were to tell us who will succeed you as Caliph over us, so that there will be after you a place we can turn to.’ He said to them: ‘As for me, I have seen his position (in front of you). Were I to do this, you would all fall into disunity as the Israelites dispersed from Aaron’. They remained quiet and left. After they had departed, we came out to the Prophet of Allah and you said to him, as you were more forthcoming with him than all of us: ‘O Messenger of Allah who did you appoint as Caliph over them?’ He said: The wearer of the mended shoe.’ we went out and we saw it was ‘Ali. You said: ‘O Prophet of Allah, I do not see anyone apart from ‘Ali’. He replied- ‘He is the one.’“Aisha said "Yes, I remember that.”Umm Salama said to her: "So then, Aisha, how can you go ahead after all these"? She replied "I venture forth to reconcile the people."
Sunni reference: Commentary of Ibn Abil Hadid, v2, p77
Umm Salama also sought to prevent her from the uprising, using strong words, saying:
"The pillars of Islam, if they lean, are not set erect by women; and if they crack, are not joined by women. The praiseworthy things for women are lowering their gazes and protecting their chastity. What would you say if the Messenger of Allah (S) appear before you in one of these deserts and finds you driving your camel from one watering place to another? By Allah, if I were to embark upon this journey of yours, then it was said to me: ‘Enter paradise’ I would be ashamed to face Muhammad after having thrown off the veils he has placed upon me.’"
Sunni reference: Kitab al-Musanif fi Gharib al-Hadith, by Ibn Qutaybah, Chapter of Imamat and Politics.
Just as Aisha did not accept the advice of many sincere companions, al-Tabari in his history related that:
Jariyah Ibn Quddama al-Sa’di said to her: ‘O mother of the believers, by Allah, the murder of Uthman is less despicable than you going out on this accursed camel from your house and bearing arms. Allah has imposed on you the veil and sanctity, you have destroyed your cover and defiled your respect. Surely, whoever sees your uprising, sees your destruction. If you come to us obeying, then go back to your house. If you have come to us in coercion, then seek the help of the people".
Sunni reference: History of al-Tabari, v6, p482
Historians have recorded that she was the general leader of the battle, supervising, separating people and issuing commands. Even when Talha and al-Zubair argued as to who should lead the prayer, and when both of them wanted to lead, Aisha intervened and removed them both and ordered Abdullah Ibn Zubair, her nephew, to lead the dissents in prayer.
She would dispatch messengers with letters which she sent to several regions, requesting their assistance against ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib and urging them with the Jahili zeal. She even recruited twenty thousand or more rabble and greedy Arabs to fight and depose the Commander of the Faithful. Her urging resulted in zealous discord, where large numbers of people were killed in the name of defending and aiding the mother of the believers.
The historians say that when the companions of Aisha came to Uthman Ibn Hanif, the governor of Basra, they took him along with seventy of his officers who were in charge of the public treasury as prisoners. They brought them to Aisha who ordered that they be put to death. They were slaughtered as sheep are slaughtered. It is even reported there were 400 men in all and that they were the first Muslims whose heads were cut off whilst they were patient.
• History of al-Tabari, v5, p178
• Sharh Ibn Abil Hadid, v2, p501
al-Sha’bi reported from Muslim Ibn Abi Bakra from his father "When Talha and Zubair reached Basra, I put on my sword as I wanted to help them. I visited Aisha, she was ordering, prohibiting; she was in command. I remembered a Hadith from the Prophet of Allah (S) which I used to hear him say: ‘A community which has its affairs administered by a woman will never succeed.’ I (therefore) withdrew from them and left them". (reported by al-Bukhari, v8, p97; al-Nisa’i, v4, p305; al-Hakim, v4, p525)
One of the things that makes us laugh and weep at the same time is that Aisha, went out of her residence in disobedience to Allah and His Prophet and then ordered the companions to remain in their houses. This is surely an amazing phenomena! Ibn Abil Hadid, in his Sharh, along with some other historians, reported that Aisha sent a letter when she was in Basra to Zaid Ibn Sawhan al-’Abdi in which she said to him: "From Aisha, the mother of the believers, daughter of Abu Bakr, the truthful one, wife of the Prophet. To her devoted son, Zaid Ibn Sawhan. Remain at home and make the people abandon the son of Abu Talib. I hope to hear what I would love from you, since you are the most trustworthy of my family...Wassalam".
This righteous man replied to her thus: "From Zaid Ibn Sawhan to Aisha Bint Abi Bakr: Allah issued a commandment to you and, He also issued a commandment to us. He ordered you to remain in your residence, and He ordered us to fight. Your letter has come to me instructing me to do contrary to what Allah has ordered me to do, (You have asked me) to do what Allah has ordered you to do, and that you do what Allah has asked me to do! Your order to me is (something) that I cannot obey, therefore there is no reply (necessary) to your letter."
From this, it becomes clear to us that Aisha was not content with leading the army of the Camel, but rather, she craved for absolute control over the believers in all the corners of the land. In all matters, she would command Talha and al-Zubair, who had been nominated for the Caliphate by Umar. Due to this, she made it lawful for herself to correspond with the chiefs of the tribes and with the governors, enticing them and seeking their help. If the heroes and men, famous for their courage, abandon and flee from the lines of battle when facing Imam ‘Ali (as) and would not stand in front of him, she stood, inciting, screaming and arousing the people.
Aisha permitted the killing of innocent people, and led the first civil war against Imam ‘Ali who was chosen by people as Caliph. The result was massacre of thousands of Muslims according to the historians (See the History of al-Tabari and the History of Ibn al-Athir on the events of the year 36 AH). Allah to whom belong Might and Majesty stated in Qur’an:
"And Whoever kills a believer deliberately, his reward is Hell forever, and the Wrath of Allah is upon him, He cursed him and prepared a great punishment for him.”(Qur’an 4:93)
Nevertheless, the Prophet (S) did not divorce her. So why all this hatred toward Imam ‘Ali (as)? History has recorded some of her aggressive actions that could not be explained. When she was on her way back to Mecca, she heard that the plot of Killing Uthman finally took place, so she became very delighted.
But when she heard that people had chosen Imam ‘Ali (as) to succeed him, she became very angry and said: "I wish the sky would collapse on the earth before son of Abu Talib (i.e., ‘Ali) could succeed the Caliphate". Then she said: "Take me back,”and thus she started the civil war against Imam ‘Ali (as) whose name she disliked to mention. Sunni traditionists narrated that:
When Ubaydullah Ibn Utbah mentioned to Ibn Abbas that Aisha said "In his death-illness the Prophet was brought to (Aisha’s) house while his shoulders were being supported by Fadhl Ibn Abbas and another person", then Abdullah Ibn Abbas said: "Do you know who this ‘other man’ was?”Ibn Utbah replied: "No.”Then Ibn Abbas said: "He was ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib, but she is averse to name him in a good context."
• Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v6, pp 34,228
• al-Tabaqat al-Kabir, by Ibn Sa’d, v2, part 2, p29
• History of al-Tabari (Arabic), v1, pp 1800-1801
• al-Ansab al-Ashraf, by al-Baladhuri, v1, pp 544-545
• al-Tabaqat, by Ibn Sa’d, v2, part 2, p29
• al-Sunan al-Kubra, by al-Bayhaqi, v3, p396
• A milder version of the above tradition has also been mentioned by al-Bukhari. (See Sahih al-Bukhari, Arabic-English, traditions 3.761 and 5.727 and 5.736).
The hatred of Aisha toward Imam ‘Ali (as) is well known. This was not just limited to waging war against Imam ‘Ali. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal recorded that:
"Ata Ibn Yasar, who says that a certain person came to Aisha and began to use impudent and abusive words for ‘Ali while Ammar, was in her presence. She said to him: "As regards ‘Ali, I have nothing to tell you, but as regards Ammar, I have heard the Messenger of Allah saying about him that if he has to make a choice between two things he will always choose that which is better from the point of view of good guidance and salvation."
Sunni reference: Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v6, p113
Aisha’s hatred for Imam ‘Ali (as) was so much that she always tried to distance him from the Prophet (S) whenever she could find the means to do so. Ibn Abil Hadid, in his commentary on the Nahjul Balagha reported:
The Prophet of Allah (S) beckoned to ‘Ali to come close. He came close until he sat between him and Aisha, and he and the Prophet (S) were clung together. She said to him "Can you not find a seat for this one except on my thigh?”
Ibn Abil Hadid also reported that one day the Prophet of Allah (S) was walking with Imam ‘Ali and the conversation became prolonged. Aisha approached as she was walking from behind until she came between them saying: "What is it between you two that you are taking so long?”Upon this the Prophet of Allah (S) became angry.
Sunni reference: Sharh Ibn Abil Hadid, v9, p195
It is also reported that she once came upon the Prophet (S) whilst he was conversing quietly with ‘Ali. She screamed and said: "What is it with you and me, O son of Abu Talib? I have (just) one day with the Prophet of Allah (S)". Thereupon the Prophet (S) became angry.
Would the Prophet (S) be pleased with any believing man or woman whose heart was filled with hatred and malice towards his cousin, the leader of his progeny, about whom he said: "He loves Allah and His Prophet, and Allah and His Prophet love him"? He also said about him: "Whoever loves ‘Ali has loved me, and whoever hates ‘Ali has hated me.”(al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p130 who said this Tradition is authentic as set by the two standards of Muslim and Bukhari).
Had Aisha not heard the saying of the Prophet about ‘Ali that "Non but a believer would love him, and none but a hypocrite would nurse grudge against him"? (Sahih Muslim, English version, Chapter XXXIV, p46, Tradition #141; Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5, p643; Sunan Ibn Majah, v1, p142; Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal v1, pp 84,95,128; Tarikh al-Kabir, by al-Bukhari, v1, part 1, p202; Hilyatul Awliyaa, by Abu Nu’aym, v4, p185; Tarikh, by al-Khateeb al-Baghdadi, v14, p462).
This saying of the Prophet was so well-known that some of the companions used to say: "We recognized the hypocrites by their hatred of ‘Ali.”(Fadha’il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p639, Tradition #1086; al-Isti’ab, by Ibn Abd al-Barr, v3, p47; al-Riyadh al-Nadhirah, by Muhibbuddin al-Tabari, v3, p242; Dhakha’ir al-Uqba, by Muhibbuddin al-Tabari, p91).
Moreover, Had Aisha not heard the saying of the Prophet: "Whoever I am his master, ‘Ali is his master. O God! Love those who love him and be hostile to those who are hostile to him"? (Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v2, p298, v5, p63; Sunan Ibn Majah, v1, pp 12,43) Undoubtedly she heard all of them, but she did not like them, and when she heard of the assassination of Imam ‘Ali (as), she knelt and thanked Allah!!! (See the History of al-Tabari and the History of Ibn al-Athir on the events of the year 40 AH).
She was also involved in the intercepting the funeral procession of al-Hasan, the leader of the Heaven’s youth, and prevented his burial beside his grandfather (the Prophet), and she said: "Do not let anybody that I don’t like enter my house.”She forgot, or maybe ignored the saying of the Prophet (S) about al-Hasan and al-Husayn that: "I love them, and Allah loves those who love them”(Sahih al-Bukhari, Arabic-English, Traditions 5.90 and 3.333), or the saying of the Prophet that: "Nothing has been dearer to me than al-Hasan.”(Sahih al-Bukhari, Arabic-English, Tradition 7.772).
Who Are Ahlul-Bayt? Part 8
بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
During the Prophet’s life, Aisha used to see that the son of Abu Talib way excelled her father on every occasion, and that the Prophet (S) continued to love him and preferred him above everyone else. she also knew that her father had returned defeated with the forces who were with him on the day of Khaibar, and that the Prophet (S) was pained by this and said: "I will give the standard tomorrow to a man who loves Allah and his Prophet, and whom Allah and his Prophet love, (a man) who will be steadfast and will not flee".
The next day Allah’s Apostle gave ‘Ali the flag and Allah granted victory under his leadership. (See Sahih al-Bukhari, Arabic-English version, Traditions 5.52, 5.520). After ‘Ali had captured Khaibar, he returned with Safiyya Bint Huyayy who the Prophet (S) married. This descended like a flash of lightning upon the heart of Aisha.
She also knew that the Prophet of Allah (S) had sent her father to proclaim the Chapter al-Bara’a (Ch. 9) to the pilgrims, but then had sent ‘Ali after him, to taking back the responsibility from him. Her father returned in tears and asked the reason for this action, whereupon the Prophet of Allah (S) responded: "Allah commanded me that none should proclaim this except me or someone from my Ahlul-Bayt". and thus he sent ‘Ali for this mission.
• Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v2, p183, v5, pp 275,283
• Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v1, pp 3,151, v3, pp 212,283
• Fadha’il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2, p562, Tradition #946
• al-Mustadrak, by al-Hakim, v3, p51
• Khasa’is al-Alawiyyah, by al-Nisa’i, p20
• Fadha’il al-Khamsa, v2, p343
• Sirah al-Nabi, by Shibli Numani, v2, p239
She also knew that the Prophet (S) had appointed his cousin, ‘Ali, as the Caliph over the Muslims after him and had ordered his companions and his wives to congratulate him for this leadership over the believers in Ghadir Khum. Her father was among the first people to say: "Congratulations, Congratulations to you, O son of Abu Talib. Today you became the master of every believing man and woman".
1. Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v4, p281
2. Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Razi, v12, pp 49-50
3. Mishkat al-Masabih, by al-Khateeb al-Tabrizi, p557
4. Habib al-Siyar, by Mir Khand, v1, part 3, p144
5. Kitabul Wilayah, by Ibn Jarir al-Tabari
6. al-Musannaf, by Ibn Abi Shaybah
7. al-Musnad, by Abu Ya’ala
8. Hadith al-Wilayah, by Ahmad Ibn ‘Uqdah
9. Tarikh, by Khateeb al-Baghdadi, v8, pp 290,596 from Abu Huraira
... and more.
Aisha fully realized that the Prophet (S) preferred Imam ‘Ali (as) over her and her father. Ahmad Ibn Hanbal in his Musnad narrates that:
Abu Bakr once came to the Prophet of Allah (S), and sought permission to enter. Before he went in, he heard Aisha’s voice raised, saying to the Prophet (S): "By Allah! I surely know that ‘Ali is dearer to you than me and my father", she repeated this twice or three times".
Sunni reference: Musnad Ahmad Hanbal, v4, p275
She also knew that the Prophet (S) had put Usamah Ibn Zaid in command over her father a youth with no hair yet grown on his cheek, for Usamah Ibn Zaid was only seventeen years old, yet the Prophet commanded Abu Bakr to go on military expeditions under the leadership of Usamah and to pray behind him. He ordered all the immigrants and Helpers except ‘Ali to go with Usamah and to fight the Romans.
There is no doubt that Aisha was influenced by these events. Deep inside she was concerned for her father, and his competing for the Caliphate. Her envy and hatred for ‘Ali grew, and she tried her best to intervene, at all costs, to change the situation to her father’s advantage using various methods. We know how she sent for her father, supposedly on behalf of her husband, ordering him to lead the people in prayer, after she learnt that the Prophet of Allah (S) had summoned ‘Ali for this duty.
When the Prophet (S) learnt of this plot, he was forced to come out, remove Abu Bakr from his place and lead the people in prayer while he was sitting. He was angry at Aisha and said to her: "You women are like the companions of Joseph (Yusuf)”meaning that their plots were great.
(Sahih al-Bukhari, Arabic-English version, Tradition #1.680).
A researcher of this event will find clear contradiction since it is explained by Aisha in several different and discordant ways. The Prophet had called her father to join the army and commanded him to embark under the leadership of Usamah Ibn Zaid three days before that prayer. It is known logically that the leader of the army also leads the prayer. Usamah Ibn Zaid was, therefore, the Imam of Abu Bakr on that expedition. Aisha sensed this disdain and understood the Prophet’s motive, especially as he had not drafted ‘Ali Ibn Abi Talib into that army in which even the notable Emigrants and Helpers, leaders and people of stature from the Quraish, had been drafted.
al-Bukhari reported that, Aisha narrated that the Prophet (S) ordered Abu Bakr to lead the prayer, but later the Prophet decided to go to mosque and he went in front of Abu Bakr and led the prayer instead of Abu Bakr. Here is the tradition of al-Bukhari as claimed by Aisha:
Sahih al-Bukhari Tradition: 1.680
When the Prophet, became ill in his fatal illness, Someone came to inform him about the prayer, and the Prophet told him to tell Abu Bakr to lead the people in the prayer. I said, "Abu Bakr is a soft-hearted man and if he stands for the prayer in your place, he would weep and would not be able to recite the Qur’an.”The Prophet said, "Tell Abu Bakr to lead the prayer.”I said the same as before.
He (repeated the same order and) on the third or the fourth time he said, "You are the companions of Joseph. Tell Abu Bakr to lead the prayer.”So Abu Bakr led the prayer and meanwhile the Prophet felt better and came out with the help of two men; as if I see him just now dragging his feet on the ground. When Abu Bakr saw him, he tried to retreat but the Prophet beckoned him to carry on. Abu Bakr retreated a bit and the Prophet sat on his (left) side. Abu Bakr was repeating the Takbir (Allahu Akbar) of Allah’s Apostle for the people to hear.
The fact, however, is that the Prophet never ordered Abu Bakr to lead the prayer. This can be proven by the following reasons:
1. Based on the above Tradition, if the Prophet was the one who ordered Abu Bakr to lead the prayer, then why he later went to mosque and lead the prayer by himself? (Based on other traditions, the Prophet even pushed Abu Bakr away with his hand). Why such humiliation toward Abu Bakr?
This proves that once the Prophet realized the plot of Aisha, he became very angry and with all his illness, he decided to go to mosque to prevent what others now claim!!! Remember What Aisha said in the above tradition: "The Prophet came out (to lead the prayer) with the help of two men; as if I see him just now dragging his feet on the ground.”This shows that the condition of the Prophet was severe, yet he was so angry at the plot of Aisha and the implication of leading the prayer by Abu Bakr that he decided to stop it at any cost.
2. All Muslims agree that the Prophet had ordered Abu Bakr and Umar to join the camp led by Usamah Ibn Zaid, and as such they should have been outside Medina where the camp was located. Then, the existence of Abu Bakr and Umar and others inside Medina was illegal and was against the order of the Prophet (S). How can, then, the Prophet order Abu Bakr to lead the prayer inside Medina while he was supposed to be outside Medina with the direct order of the Prophet?!
The Messenger of Allah said: "May the curse of Allah be upon those who turn away from the army of Usamah”and he ordered the army to be dispatched immediately, and ordered all Helpers and all Immigrants except ‘Ali to leave Medina. But some companions disobeyed and complained about the leadership of Usamah (See Sahih al-Bukhari, Arabic-English version, Tradition #5.552, 5.744 and 5.745) and they delayed in joining the camp, and finally returned to Medina, in order to prepare themselves for discussion about successorship as soon as the Messenger of Allah passes away.
Aisha further claimed that the Prophet (S) expired while he was resting on her chest. This claim contradicts the narrations transmitted and recorded by others. In the tradition reported by Imam ‘Ali as recorded by Ibn Sa’d who named consecutive sources up to Imam ‘Ali, we read:
‘Ali said: "In the last moments of his life, the Messenger of Allah said: ‘Call me my brother.’ So I approached him. He asked me to get nearer to him and I got quite close to him. He leaned on me and continued resting on my chest and speaking to me till his spittle fell on me and the Messenger of Allah breathed his last."
• al-Tabaqat, by Ibn Sa’d, v2, part 2, p51, in the Chapter entitled "The Prophet demised in ‘Ali’s lap"
• Kanz al-Ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, v1, p392
In connection this event, it has also been narrated that:
Imam ‘Ali said: "The Messenger of Allah at that time (before his last breath) taught me one thousand chapters (Bab) of knowledge, every one of which opened for me one thousand other chapters."
• Kanz al-Ummal, by al-Muttaqi al-Hindi, v1, p392
• Hilyatul Awliyaa, by al-Hafidh Abu Nu’aym
• Nuskhatah, by Abu Ahmad al-Faradi
• and many others...
Also, in a tradition which is recorded by Muslim and others, Aisha said:
"The Messenger of Allah left behind neither a single Dinar nor a Dirham, nor a sheep nor a camel, nor did he make any will."
If she meant that the Prophet (S) did not leave left behind anything at all and was devoid of everything worth making a will about, it is definitely incorrect. The Prophet who has strongly encouraged others to write their will, should have made a will for himself as well. Of course, he did not leave behind, like other worldly people, things which are regarded as worldly vanities, for he was the most religiously devoted person and most indifferent person to worldly pleasure.
However when he passed away, he had some outstanding debts (see Kanz al-Ummal, v4, p60) to be cleared, some promises and commitments to be fulfilled, and certain goods for which it was incumbent upon him to make a will. He left behind himself enough cash and property for repayment of his debts, fulfillment on his promises and commitments, and for inheritance in favor of his daughter, Lady Fatimah al-Zahra (sa). This latter fact is supported by Fatimah’s claim to the property as the heir of the Prophet.
• Sahih al-Bukhari, Chapter of "The battle of Khaibar", (Arabic-English), Traditions 5.546, and 4.325;
• Sahih Muslim, Chapter of Jihad, v2, p72
The Prophet (S) sensed the depth and danger of the schemes that revolved around him from all sides. He knew specifically that one of his wives, Aisha, was the instigator of the dangerous role because of the hatred and rancor that she felt towards his successor ‘Ali in particular and his family in general.
How could he not know, when he lived observing her role and her enmity towards them? He sometimes got angry; sometimes his face would change color and he would try to placate her at all times, informing her that one who loved ‘Ali loved Allah, and the one who hated ‘Ali was a hypocrite, whom Allah hated.
As a result, the Prophet of Allah (S) was patient when he realized that she was the test that Allah had sent to the Ummah, to examine it as He had tested the previous nations. "Do the people think that they will be left alone when they say: ‘We believe’ and they will not be tested?”(Qur’an 29:2)
The fact that she was a test for people is clear from the previously quoted tradition of al-Bukhari where Ammar Ibn Yasir said to people before the battle of Camel that: "Allah has put you to test whether you obey Allah or her (Aisha).”(See Sahih al-Bukhari, Arabic-English version, Tradition 9.220).
The Prophet of Allah (S) warned the Ummah against her on several occasions. In Sahih al-Bukhari, there is a chapter about what went on in the houses of the wives of the Prophet in which there is the following tradition:
Sahih al-Bukhari Hadith: 4.336
The Prophet stood up and delivered a sermon, and pointed to the house of Aisha, and said: "Fitna (trouble/sedition) is right here,”saying three times, "from where the side of the Satan’s head comes out."
قام النبي خطيبا فأشار نحو مسكن عائشة فقال: ها هنا الفتنه، ثلاثاً، من حيث يطلع قرن الشيطان.
In the above tradition the Prophet predicted the sedition which Aisha will bring for Muslims and that she will be seduced by Satan for instigating the first civil war in the history of Islam.
Muslim has also related in his Sahih from Ikrima Ibn Ammar from Salim from Ibn Umar who said:
"The Prophet of Allah (S) emerged from the house of Aisha and said. ‘The pivot of disbelief is from here, where the horns of Satan will rise.’"
Sunni reference: Sahih Muslim, Arabic version, the Chapter of Seditions, v4, p2229
A Sunni brother mentioned that the following two traditions have the same reference to "one side of Satan’s head", and they show that the Prophet (S) was pointing to Najd where the Wahhabis later emerged.
Thus the above tradition (about Aisha) must be referring to the same thing (i.e., Najd). It might be that the house of Aisha was located in the east, and the Prophet was perhaps referring to Najd and not the house of Aisha. Here are the two traditions:
Sahih al-Bukhari Hadith: 2.147:
Narrated Ibn Umar:
(The Prophet) said, "O Allah! Bless our Sham and our Yemen.”People said, "Our Najd as well.”The Prophet again said, "O Allah! Bless our Sham and Yemen.”They said again, "Our Najd as well.”On that the Prophet said, "There will appear earthquakes and afflictions, and from there will come out the side of the head of Satan."
Sahih al-Bukhari Hadith: 5.672:
Narrated Abu Huraira:
The Prophet said, "Belief is Yemenite while afflictions appear from there (the east) from where the side of the head of Satan will appear."
This argument does not seem to be correct for the following reasons:
1. al-Bukhari has put the tradition related to Aisha in a section named: "what went on in the houses of the wives of the Prophet". This shows that al-Bukhari did not understand the tradition as this brother proposed.
If the author ever thought that the Prophet (S) meant Najd in that particular tradition, he wouldn’t have put the tradition in the section of what was going on in the houses of the wives of the Prophet (S). He probably would have put it in the Chapter of al-Fitan or else. You agree that Najd has nothing to do with what was going on in the house of Aisha! Do you claim that you know better than the author of Sahih al-Bukhari?
2. The name of Aisha has been explicitly mentioned in that tradition while those of related to Najd do not have reference to Aisha.
3. Although the Prophet himself did not name Aisha, yet he mentioned in that particular tradition "right here”and the pointing was so clear that the companions understood that he was pointing to the house of Aisha as it is mentioned in the text of the tradition. Najd can not be "right here”in Medina in front of the Prophet.
That is why the Messenger of Allah used "there”in the traditions related to Najd. I have highlighted the phrase "right here”in the tradition referring to Aisha, and the word "there”in the traditions referring to Najd for comparison. (See above).
4. The brother mentioned that the other traditions have the same reference to "one side of Satan’s head", so this particular tradition must be referring to the same thing (i.e., Najd). Well, you agree that Satan’s head does not have one side (or one horn) only.
In fact, any Fitna is the manifestation of Satan. This includes all major Fitna which happened in the past (in the early history of Islam and civil wars, as well as the Wahhabi emergence in Najd) and also the great incoming Fitna by al-Dajjal and Sufyani as predicted in the traditions. Satan does not belong to Najd Metropolitan only!
Like it or not, Muhammad Ibn Abdil Wahhab (the inventor of Wahhabism) and Aisha were both Fitna as the documented history proves. However they have been in different era. When the Messenger of Allah mentions anywhere the phrase "one of the horns of Satan", it is a symbolic way to say "one of the great Fitna induced by Satan.”You agree with me that the inducing of Fitna by Satan has not been particular to one occasion. In fact, this has been Satan’s business for long!
5. The problem is not Aisha alone. In a similar tradition in Sahih Muslim it is said that the Prophet was pointing the house of Hafsa (daughter of Umar). In the other tradition in Sahih Muslim (same page), the Prophet uses the phrase "The Chief of Unbelief/Blasphemy (Kufr)”instead of "Fitna”(see Sahih Muslim, Arabic version, the Chapter of Seditions, v4, p2229).
6. There is a great possibility that the additions which exist in other traditions parallel to the genuine Hadith and their explanation: "That means the east”is a mere fabrication to dilute the accusation against Aisha. The way of adding words to genuine traditions was a typical scheme of the Umayad to face the widespread traditions of the Prophet (S). Nonetheless, the two traditions mentioned above about Aisha from al-Bukhari and Muslim, do not include such additions.
Most surely, there has been other examples in history of religions that the wives of some prophets went astray, and this is not anything exclusive to the history of the religion of Islam. In the very same chapter that Allah, the most Glorious, had warned Aisha and Hafsa jointly in His words (Chapter 66), He also provided for both of them a significant parable to teach them and the rest of the Muslims that the mother of the believers will NOT enter heaven without any reckoning or punishment, simply because they is the wives of a prophet.
Most Certainly not! For Allah has informed His servants, male and female, that mere spousal relationship will neither harm nor benefit a person, even if the husband is a prophet of Allah. What benefits or harms a person, in the eyes of Allah, are an individual’s deeds. Allah stated in the very same chapter of Qur’an:
Allah has set forth an example to the disbelievers, the wife Of Noah and the wife of Lot. They were both married to two servants from among our righteous servants, but they were deceitful/treacherous to their husbands. And they benefited nothing before Allah on the account of their (husbands). Instead they were told: "Enter the Fire with those who enter.”(Qur’an 66:10)
Allah cited an example for the believers, the wife of Pharaoh when she said: "O my Lord, build for me a house in paradise, and save me from Pharaoh and his deeds; and save me from the people who do wrong.”(Qur’an 66:11)
And Mary, the daughter of Imran who guarded her chastity and We breathed Our spirit into her. She testified to the truth of the words of her Lord and of His scriptures and she was one of the devout (servants).”(Qur’an 66:12)
Allah informed Prophet Noah (as) and Prophet Lot (as) that those of their wives who do not follow their instructions are not related to them and they will perish along with the rest of unbelievers. By this it becomes clear to all that spousal relationship and companionship, even though they both have a lot of merits, do not, in themselves, prevent the punishment of Allah unless they are accompanied by righteous deeds.
If they are not, punishment is, in fact, increased. Allah’s justice dictates that He does not punish the distant one who does not hear the revelation as much as he punishes the close one in whose house the Qur’an was revealed. A man who knows the truth and yet opposes it and an ignorant person who does not know the truth, are not alike. This is also confirmed in the following verse of Qur’an:
"O’ Consorts of the Prophet! if any of you were guilty of evident misconduct the Punishment would be doubled to her and that is easy for Allah.”(Qur’an 33:30)
The above was just few pages of the thick file of Aisha in the history of Islam, which gives enough evidence to prove that she does not have any compatibility whatsoever with the virtues mentioned in the purification verse of Qur’an (Ayah al-Tat’hir). Therefor it is inconceivable that one could consider such a personality to be from Ahlul-Bayt who are sinless and pure and should be obeyed beside Qur’an.
The removal of filth and purification is as remote from Aisha as the sky is from the earth, and that those who believe otherwise are the victims of the forgery of the Umayad without realizing it. This is beside many authentic traditions were mentioned earlier, in which the Messenger of Allah himself excluded even his righteous wives from the Ahlul-Bayt.
As for the question that whether or not Aisha was a believer, I would say Allah knows best, and we are not in a position to judge on that. Based on the traditions of the Prophet (S) which are even recorded in the authentic Sunni collections, anybody who fights Ahlul-Bayt has declared war on the Prophet and is an infidel unless he/she truly repents and Allah accepts his/her repentance. There are some claims that Aisha repented when she was defeated in the battle of Camel.
Other Sunni reports (some of which we quoted above) show that she continued her misconduct even after the battle of Camel. What is clear, however, is that such questionable individuals are not trustworthy in transmitting the Sunnah of the Prophet (S).
We do not have to bear the hatred of Aisha or others in our heart. We believe that these individuals were fallible and committed some small and some very big sins. We are not here to sentence them to Hell or Paradise, for this is Allah’s business. It is not for us to be pleased with Aisha or to curse her. We cannot, however, follow her nor can we condone her deeds.
We speak of all this so as to enlighten the people about the truth on who should be followed as the guardian of the Sunnah of the Prophet (S) after him. We should study the history of Islam to take lessons from the events and to analyze the action of the influential individuals in order to learn which of them were trustworthy for transmitting the Sunnah of the Prophet (S).
We can not take Hadith from any one who saw the Prophet (S) since some of them have done gross injustice in the history by shedding the blood of thousands of Muslims and usurping the rights of those whom the Messenger of Allah put them beside Qur’an and ordered us to follow them. Logic requires us not to blindly follow what the unjust individuals said or attributed to the Prophet (S).
Again I apologize from Sunni brothers/sisters if they feel offended by the content of the final parts of this article. However the above information were referenced by the most important Sunni collections of Hadith/History which provides undeniable and conclusive pieces of evidence for our Sunni brothers and sisters with regard to the question of who Ahlul-Bayt are.
The Word House (Ahlul-Bayt) in Qur’an
بِسْمِ اللَّـهِ الرَّحْمَـٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ
Qur’an testifies that Sarah, the wife of Prophet Abraham (as), was blessed by angels and was given the glad tiding that she will give birth to two prophets of God:
And his wife, standing by, laughed when We gave her good tidings (of the birth) of Isaac, and, after Isaac, of Jacob. (Qur’an 11:71)
She said: "Alas for me! Shall I bear a child when I am an old woman and my husband now is an old man? That would indeed be a strange thing!”(Qur’an 11:72)
The (angles) said: Do You wonder at Allah’s decree? The grace of Allah and His blessings be upon you, O People of the House! He is indeed worthy of all praise full of all glory!”(Qur’an 11:73)
Since in the mercy and the bounty of God offered in the above verse to the People of the House of Abraham, it has been a tendency of some Sunni commentators and their anxiety to find some argument for their counting the wives of the Holy Prophet (S) in the terms Ahlul-Bayt. They argue that since Sarah the wife of Abraham is included in the term Ahlul-Bayt mentioned in the above verse, then all the wives of the Prophet (S) are included in the verse 33:33 relating to the purity and the excellence of the Ahlul-Bayt of Prophet Muhammad.
However, these commentators intentionally or otherwise ignore the significance of the address by the Angels. If Sarah, the wife of Abraham, is included in the term Ahlul-Bayt used in the above verse, it is not because she was the wife of Abraham, but because she was going to be the mother of two prophets (Isaac and Jacob). She was mentioned by angles in the above verse as a member of Ahlul-Bayt, after she received the glad tiding that she is pregnant of Prophet Isaac (as).
The matrimonial relation between and a man and a woman is only circumstantial and can be given up at any moment. She could never be a permanent partner to any husband to be included in the heavenly address who are endowed with the unique and heavenly excellence UNLESS she brings a son who becomes a Prophet or an Imam.
Thus if we consider Sarah as a member of the House, it would be only because she would be the mother of Isaac, and not being the wife of Abraham. The verses 11:71-73 quoted above show that Sarah was called among Ahlul-Bayt after she got to know that she is having Isaac (as).
Likewise, Qur’an mentions the mother of Moses among the Ahlul-Bayt of Imran. Again, as we can see in the following verses, the emphasis here is the MOTHER of Moses and not the wife of Imran:
And We ordained that he refuse to seek any foster mother before so she said: Shall I point out to you a household who will take care of him for you, and will be kind to him? (Qur’an 28:12)
So We restored him to his mother that she might be comforted and not grieve, and that she might know that the promise of Allah is true. But most of them know not. (Qur’an 28:13)
The mother of Moses is termed as Ahlul-Bayt, not for being the wife of Imran, but for being the mother of Moses, otherwise the wives who are subject to divorce and being substituted with women better than them (Qur’an 66:5) can’t be considered as Ahlul-Bayt as pointed out by Zaid Ibn Arqam as well. This is illustrated with the wife of Noah and Lot, though they were the wives of such great servants of God, they were not considered Ahlul- Bayt. They perished along with the rest of community.
Let’s remember what Zaid Ibn Arqam said: "Ahlul-Bayt (household) of the Prophet are his lineage and his descendants (those who come from his blood) for whom the acceptance of charity (Zakat) is prohibited."
The wife of Imran was in the lineage of the Moses, so was the wife of Abraham who was in the lineage of Isaac and Jacob. Similarly, if Fatimah (sa) is among the Ahlul-Bayt Prophet of Islam, it is because not only she was the daughter of the Prophet (S), but also she was the mother of two Imams.
And Noah Cried unto his Lord and said: "My Lord! Verily my son is of my family; and verily Your promise is true, and You are the most just of the judges."
He (Allah) said: "O Noah! Verily he is not of your family; Verily he is (of) conduct other than the righteous; Therefore do not ask what you have no knowledge about; Verily I advice you not to be of the ignorant ones.”(Qur’an 11:45-46)
Abul Ala Maududi wrote in his commentary of the above verse that:
"If a part of the body of a person becomes rotten and the surgeon decides to cut it off, he will not comply with the request of the patient, who says ‘Do not cut because it is a part of my body’. The surgeon will reply, ‘It is no longer a part of your body because it is rotten.’ Likewise when a righteous father is told that his son is a worthless act, it means to imply that the efforts that you made to bring him up as a good son have gone waste for the work is spoilt and ended in utter failure."
• Commentary of Qur’an by Abul Ala Maududi (published by the Islamic Publications (Pvt) Limited), p367, under verse 11:45-46
Prophet Noah (as) was pleading for his own son and the reply was that the lad was not worthy of being his son. It is made crystal clear by this verse that though one might be of the same blood and flesh, born through the same parents, but if the issue doesn’t possess the good qualities of the parents then he or she is not of his parents’ stock (as said in the second verse).
Noah had three other sons, Aam, Sam and Yafas who were believers and who with their wives entered the Ark and were saved and Kanan was Noah’s son by his OTHER wife who was a disbeliever and perished along with her son.
It can be concluded that if any one does not hold the goodness of the correct faith in Allah, be he the son of the Apostle, he is not to be of the stock of his parentage; His very birth through his own parents is denied to him, even the right to be on God’s earth is withdrawn from him, and he is to be destroyed.
Thus, even one is to be the son of a prophet of Allah, the lack of righteousness gets him disowned from the progeny (Itrat) of the apostolic family. It is for this reason that the term Ahlul-Bayt is restricted to the deserving members of the House of the Prophet and doesn’t cover all of those who are born from his blood. Ahlul-Bayt are only the individuals among Prophet’s descendants who also had close affinity in character and utmost spiritual attainment with Prophet (S).
رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا إِنَّكَ أَنتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ
اَللَّهُمَّ صَلِّ عَلى مُحَمَّدٍ وَّآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ وَّعَجِّلْ فَرَجَهُمْ
وَالْعَنْ أَعْدَائَهُمْ اَجْمَعِيْن
🤲 اللھم عجل لولیک الفرج(ع)🤲
فی امان لله